Job Descriptions: An Essential How-To Guide

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Employers often face challenges in creating new job descriptions for positions that they do not currently employ, identifying essential job functions, and keeping job descriptions updated. For these reasons, members often request sample job descriptions from ERC and consult with us to develop or update their job descriptions.

Based on our experience and knowledge in helping organizations with job descriptions coupled with our research on job description development practices, we've developed an essential how-to guide to creating new job descriptions to equip you with tips and guidance on managing this important, but often arduous, HR responsibility.

What Sources to Use

When creating a job description for a new job, using secondary sources of job information can help you better understand a position and the typical duties a person would perform in that role. Use these cautiously, however, and validate the job description with the new position's manager before finalizing it to be sure that the job description accurately captures the true job duties. Good sources to use to develop new job descriptions include:

  • BNA Job Description Tool / Other online job description tools
  • O*Net / Job Description Writer
  • Dictionary of Occupational Job Titles
  • ERI’s position analysis tool
  • Compensation or salary survey job descriptions
  • Sample job descriptions from other organizations
  • Job postings

Who to Consult for Job Information

Job analysis should always be used to create a new job description. Interviews, questionnaires, and/or observation techniques can be used to gather information about job tasks and duties, determine the most essential functions of the job, evaluate the abilities needed to perform the work, and uncover the qualifications or background necessary to complete the job duties. Common techniques include (in order of most used):

  • Interview/meeting with supervisor of job incumbent
  • Interview with job incumbent or past incumbents (typically high or average performers)
  • Observe job incumbents working on tasks
  • Ask supervisor and/or job incumbents to complete a questionnaire (i.e. PAQ)
  • Interview with subject matter expert(s)

The job incumbent or manager should not write the job description. Rather, a trained HR professional should. You can, however, gather important information from these individuals about the job, such as:

  • Purpose of the job
  • Basic functions and duties
  • Responsibilities related to supervision (number of employees supervised)
  • Level of discretion/authority
  • People with whom the position interacts and level of interaction
  • Amount and type of physical exertion
  • Abilities (mathematical, verbal, etc.)
  • Minimum educational or technical qualifications (diplomas, degrees, certifications, etc.)
  • Minimum experience required to perform duties
  • Exposure to certain work conditions

What Information to Include in a Job Description

At a minimum, job descriptions should include the job title, key duties and responsibilities, a job purpose summary, required job knowledge or skills, requisite physical and cognitive abilities, required educational level or certification(s), minimum qualifications/ competencies, preferred qualifications/competencies, reporting relationship, indication of essential duties, "other duties as assigned," and creation/revision dates.

Information about work conditions/environment, FLSA exemption status, and location of work are also somewhat commonly included in job descriptions.

Job descriptions should not include instructions or recommendations about how to do the job, performance expectations or standards, occasional or temporary job duties that are non-essential, future job duties, and generalized statements. Job descriptions also should not contain a laundry list of job duties, but rather should reflect the position's priorities.

How to Identify Essential Functions

One of the most important things employers must do when developing job descriptions is to identify and delineate the essential functions of the job.  

An essential function must be an important task that only the person in the job can do. In other words, the duty would be a hardship for another person to handle. An essential job function is not necessarily a duty that takes up the largest percentage of an employee's time, nor can it be automatically considered an essential function across similar jobs. 

There are a number of strategies organizations use to determine essential functions, including asking the job incumbent's manager, observing employees doing tasks, conducting a thorough job analysis, and reviewing core duties and most critical job tasks.

How to Write Job Descriptions

Job descriptions should be written using clear and very specific language. Each duty or task should begin with an action verb in the present tense (i.e. supervise, create, analyze, administer, etc.) and imprecise words should be limited (i.e. assists, handles, etc.). In addition, no references to race, gender, disability, or other protected classes should be included in the document. Similarly, avoid jargon and spell out acronyms.

How Often to Update Job Descriptions

Ideally, job descriptions should be "living documents" which are evaluated annually because it's not uncommon for job descriptions to grow outdated or need minor adjustments each year. Nonetheless, the majority of employers re-look at job descriptions only when a position becomes available, when there is a change in the duties of a position, and when there is a significant change in the organization.

Be aware that if job descriptions are not updated on a regular basis, you risk running into trouble with regulatory requirements like complying with ADA, as the courts frequently revisit employers' job descriptions to determine if employees are capable of performing certain job duties and whether those duties are essential.

Job descriptions are generally regarded as legal documents, necessary for maintaining compliance with ADA, FLSA, FMLA and other employment laws in addition to aiding the recruiting and hiring process, helping managers evaluate performance and set performance criteria or goals, determining compensation or grade level, and helping to identify training needs. For these reasons and more, be sure that your job descriptions are created and written accurately and updated on a regular basis.

Additional Resources

Job Description Resources

ERC offers numerous resources to help employers create and update job descriptions through Membership including salary surveys, a job description tool, and sample job descriptions. ERC members can contact hrhelp@yourerc.com to access these resources.

Job Description Services

ERC can help create job descriptions as well as facilitate job description updates. For more information about our services, please contact hrhelp@yourerc.com.

ERC Forms Partnership with Corporate Screening Services

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ERC has partnered with Corporate Screening Services, a leading provider of pre-employment screening products and solutions, to offer its members a free Screening Program Assessment (SPA) and discounted pricing on background screening. ERC members will receive at least 5% off all background screening products.

Corporate Screening combines state-of-the-art data gathering technology with in-depth examination and analysis to verify information and mitigate the risks associated with hiring employees. With offices in Cleveland and Tampa, Corporate Screening utilizes an expanding professional staff of 80 analysts and consultants to service the needs of hiring professionals representing a full spectrum of industries, with special emphasis on the healthcare, financial, manufacturing and higher education sectors.

“We’re thrilled to be partnering with Corporate Screening as we believe their products and processes are tops in the industry,” said Pat Perry, President of ERC. “Background screening is a popular outsourced solution for our members and we think they will be very happy with the service and quality at Corporate Screening.”

“Corporate Screening is honored to have been selected as ERC’s background screening partner especially in such a competitive market. We share many of the same values and virtues as ERC so this an incredibly natural fit. Our team is excited to continue ERC’s tradition of providing exceptional benefit to its members,” said Greg Dubecky, President of Corporate Screening.

For more information on the discounts available to ERC members, click here.

3 Frequently Asked Questions about FLSA

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Employers usually have a number of questions about the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), which governs wage and hour rules - when and how employers are obligated to pay employees for time worked or not worked under law. Here are answers to 3 frequently asked questions about issues related to FLSA.

1. Can we dock exempt employees' pay?

Some employers seek to dock or withhold pay as a disciplinary measure for exempt employees, particularly for reasons such as absenteeism, tardiness, or performance. Under FLSA, however, employers may not reduce an exempt employee's pay for showing up late, leaving work early, or because they did not perform the quality of quantity of work expected of them. Other guidelines regarding the docking of exempt employees' pay include:

  • If your organization has a written paid sick time, paid leave, or other time off policy, it may reduce the employee's sick or paid leave account for absences due to illness, injury, or medical appointments. 
  • Once an employee's sick or paid leave account is exhausted for these absences, you must pay employees for partial day absences unless they qualify under FMLA and are using intermittent leave. 
  • If your organization does not have a sick or paid leave policy and it is implied that employees receive pay for their absences, it cannot deduct pay for full or partial day absences for exempt employees.
  • Exempt employees who are new to the organization and not yet eligible to receive holiday or vacation pay, should generally be provided with it, given these above guidelines.

There are situations where your organization has the ability to dock or reduce pay of exempt employees, such as if they did not work some days during their first or last week of employment, were absent for an entire week, or received an unpaid disciplinary suspension. Deducting pay for exempt employees is usually permissible under these circumstances, however, you can only dock pay if employees are not working (i.e. not checking email, voicemail, etc.) in these situations.

2. For what time do we need to pay non-exempt employees?

Unlike exempt employees who are paid to complete a job, non-exempt employees only need to be paid for time worked, so naturally, the issue of what constitutes "working time" for non-exempt employees is a common question and issue employers face. Job-related or required training, department or staff meetings, and time spent on work travel are all considered working time for non-exempt employees and must be paid. This even includes seminars, training, or meetings on job-related topics held after hours.

In addition, unauthorized working time may also be considered time worked. Even though an employer may not specifically authorize an employee to work, non-exempt employees must be paid for all work they complete. For example, if a non-exempt employee works at home off-the-clock on their own accord, that time must be considered hours worked even though the time was unscheduled. Additionally, if an employee starts work early or stays late, that time must also be paid. Non-exempt employees must be paid for all hours worked.

Employers are increasingly facing this issue when non-exempt employees access work at home, such as via electronic devices like a Smartphone. For example, if a non-exempt employee sends an email to another employee outside of work hours, they are entitled to be compensated for the time spent responding to that email.

3. Is this job exempt or non-exempt?

Employees exempt from both the minimum wage and overtime pay requirements not only include those that fall under the Department of Labor's  exemptions for executive, administrative, professional, outside sales, and certain computer professionals, but seasonal employees who are employed at certain seasonal amusement or recreational establishments also fall under those exempt from these provisions. Correctly classifying employees as exempt or non-exempt can be tricky given the many guidelines for exemptions.

Terming employees "hourly" or "salaried" can commonly lead to issues of misclassification. Salaried employees are not automatically "exempt" and hourly employees are not automatically "non-exempt." Also, a professional, highly-skilled, or managerial-related job tile (such as engineer, analyst, administrator, or supervisor) does not sufficiently guarantee exemption. Employers need to evaluate employees' specific job duties (regardless of how they are paid) and their job title to determine exemption status, as well as use specific tests to determine their status.

Outdated job descriptions can commonly lead to issues with FLSA compliance so it's important to regularly update them, determine their accuracy, and conduct FLSA audits or evaluations to determine if a job is exempt or not. Job descriptions should accurately depict what an employee actually currently does in the position because they are the most crucial element to deciphering a position's FLSA status according to exemption tests.

FLSA is a difficult and complex law to administer in the workplace, and as a result workplace violations are easily made. Understanding the common pitfalls faced by other employers, however, can help your organization stay compliant with the law's many provisions.

Please note that by providing you with research information that may be contained in this article, ERC is not providing a qualified legal opinion. As such, research information that ERC provides to its members should not be relied upon or considered a substitute for legal advice. The information that we provide is for general employer use and not necessarily for individual application.

Hiring Rates Improving In Transportation, Warehousing and Utilities Industry

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The July 2012 BLS Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey reports that hire rates for the month of May saw little change when compared to the same statistic from 2011. However, one notable exception can be found in the area of Transportation, Warehousing and Utilities. This group of sub-industries experienced a 1.1% hiring rate increase over May 2011 with a 3.7% of all hires made in May 2012 falling into this industry breakout- approximately 180,000 individuals hired throughout the month.

While this industry is traditionally paid lower than many other hourly positions, a jump in hiring could reflect an increased demand for some of these more physically demanding jobs in the private sector. Reporting hourly wage data from the second half of January 2012, the 2012 ERC Wage Survey did in fact see a modest increase in pay for a number of these positions. For example, a Warehouse Worker earned a median salary $13.68, which is up about 12% from the 2011 survey results. Other positions, such as Drivers (Heavy: $16.25 and Local: $16.80) and Fork Lift Operators ($15.00) saw slightly lower improvements in wages, but do appear to be trending consistently upwards over the past several years.

View ERC's Wage & Salary Adjustment Survey Results

The survey reports data from Northeast Ohio organizations regarding their actual and projected wage and salary adjustments.

View the Results

How to Manage FMLA Intermittent Leave: 7 Strategies

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How to Better Manage FMLA Intermittent Leave: 7 Strategies

There is probably no task more cumbersome for HR professionals than managing intermittent leave under the Family Medical Leave Act (FMLA). Intermittent leave allows qualified employees to take FMLA leave in small blocks of time (such as one hour) versus one block of 12 weeks.

Although intermittent leave can benefit employees who need time off work for their own health condition or to help with another family member's serious health condition, it can create burdens and adversity for employers if it isn't managed appropriately. The following administrative strategies tend to help employers manage intermittent leave more effectively.

1. Require medical certification.

You have the right to determine that intermittent leave is medically necessary. You can require medical certification to be submitted in order to make this determination and request multiple medical opinions. Doing so gives you some control over the situation and helps you understand the frequency and duration of intermittent leave needed by the employee.

2. Ask for recertification.

Requiring employees to recertify their leave when the condition changes or according to a certain period (such as every 6 months or annually) helps keep employees honest and makes sure you stay knowledgeable about the condition's status and any changes needed for the leave.

3. Have employees use paid leave concurrently with FMLA leave.

Requiring use of concurrent paid leave, disability, etc. curbs the adverse effects of excessive absenteeism. If you don't require use of concurrent leave, you may risk an employee using more than the allotted 12 weeks of leave provided under FMLA.  

4. Use a rolling 12-month period to calculate FMLA leave.

Calculating FMLA leave on a calendar 12-month basis can lead to employees taking back-to-back leave and potentially provides 24 weeks or 6 months of FMLA to an employee. Conversely, calculating FMLA on a rolling 12-month period can prevent back-to-back leave.

5. Accommodate the employee to reduce disruptions.

You may assign an employee to an alternative position with equivalent pay and benefits to better accommodate intermittent leave. You may also work with them to establish an intermittent leave schedule that reduces the leave's disruptions to your business operations. Remember, it's completely legal to request that the employee make a reasonable effort not to disrupt your business operations.

6. Establish guidelines for call-offs.

Call-offs can disrupt business, so provide requirements that employees must call in before they are absent if they are going to be using FMLA leave. You may also request that employees provide notice of unforeseeable leave as soon as practicable.

7. Track leave and absences.

You may request recertification from health care providers when you notice a pattern of absences which could suggest that an employee is abusing intermittent leave. Also, be aware that not tracking FMLA may lead you to provide more than the required amount of leave. Make sure nothing goes uncounted, and if you don't have the time to track it, consider outsourcing FMLA.

While these strategies won't necessarily reduce the number of employees using FMLA leave, they will typically help your organization avoid the costly consequences of mismanaged intermittent FMLA leave.

Please note that by providing you with research information that may be contained in this article, ERC is not providing a qualified legal opinion. As such, research information that ERC provides to its members should not be relied upon or considered a substitute for legal advice. The information that we provide is for general employer use and not necessarily for individual application.

ADA FMLA Compliance Training

ADA & FMLA Compliance Training Course

Participants review the interrelatedness of these two laws including how they impact each other.

Train Your Employees

ERC teams with PartnerShip to provide members discounted shipping solutions

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ERC has partnered with PartnerShip® (www.PartnerShip.com/09ERC), a leading provider of shipping solutions, to offer its members discounted pricing on shipping. ERC members will save:

  • Up to 26%* on select FedEx Express® services
  • Up to 12% on select FedEx Ground® services 
  • Up to 10% on select FedEx Home Delivery® services
  • At least 70% on LTL freight shipments

PartnerShip delivers customized shipping solutions to over a hundred associations and thousands of businesses, and has been recognized as an industry leader in helping businesses reduce shipping costs since 1989. PartnerShip saves businesses money on every shipment, every time. The program is available to all ERC members with no obligations and no minimum shipping requirements.

“We’re thrilled to offer this solution to our members as it can save them a lot of time and money,” said Pat Perry, President of ERC. “The best part is that it can be utilized by organizations of any size; there is no minimum requirement and no limit to the amount you can save.”

Visit PartnerShip.com/09ERC for complete program information and to enroll in the free ERC Shipping Program. Members with existing FedEx shipping accounts can also enroll and PartnerShip will ensure they receive the lowest rates on every shipment. If you have any questions, please call PartnerShip at 800-599-2902, or email sales@PartnerShip.com. For no-obligation tradeshow shipping quotes, visit here (and be sure to mention you are with ERC).

Lake-Geauga Fast Track 50 seeking nominations

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In its 20th year, the Lake-Geauga Fast Track 50 Award once again recognizes the 50 fastest growing companies in Lake and Geauga Counties. Winners of the award are based on average sales and employment growth from 2007 through 2011. The most current nomination form can be found online at: www.fasttrack50.org.

To be eligible to receive the award, companies must be located in the two-county region, be organized as a for-profit business, and must have a sales profit for 2007 of at least $100,000. 

Winning companies were honored at a recognition dinner on November 1, 2012 at the Holiday Inn Express Hotel & Suites LaMalfa in Mentor and were featured in The News-Herald.

Fast Track 50 was founded in 1993 when Peter Ferrante, Greg Skoda and representatives from Huntington National Bank met to talk about the unique small businesses that they served as clients. A formal program was then developed to honor the 50 fastest growing companies in the Lake-Geauga county region. The annual awards banquet is attended by nearly 400 members of the business community and local government officials.

The 2012 program is sponsored by Benjamin F. Edwards & Co., Huntington Bank, Lakeland Community College, The News-Herald, and Skoda Minotti.

Nearly 300 companies have been recognized since the award’s inception in 1993. For a complete listing of these companies, or to nominate a deserving company, please visit www.fasttrack50.org. For questions, please contact Jen Brawner of Skoda Minotti at 440-449-6800.

Supreme Court Upholds Health Care Reform Law

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On June 28th, 2012, in a 5-4 decision, the U.S. Supreme Court that the individual mandate portion of the health care reform law (the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act), which requires that most Americans buy health insurance or pay a fine, is constitutional as a tax.

The Court agreed that while Congress could not use its power to regulate commerce between states to require individuals to buy health insurance, Congress could impose a tax penalty using its tax power for individuals who refuse to buy health insurance.

Because the mandate is constitutional, the Court did not need to determine whether other parts of the law were constitutional, according to the SCOTUS Blog.

The individual mandate was set to be implemented in 2014, however, many provisions of the health care reform law had already gone into effect in 2012. The ruling suggests that employers will still be responsible for the carrying out the provisions of the law which affect their organizations.

For more information about the Supreme Court decision, please visit the links below.

Source: SCOTUS Blog

New Retirement Plan Requirements: 4 Things Employers Must Do

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The Department of Labor's final rules under the Employee Retirement Security Act of 1974 (ERISA) start became effective July of 2012. These rules are intended to enhance the transparency of fees and other compensation with service providers. They will help employers and their employees better understand how much their retirement plan truly costs and the value/level of service they are receiving from their vendor/service provider.

Many employers are unaware of their responsibilities as ERISA fiduciaries. Most are neither trained nor skilled to interpret vendor reports, monitor service levels or fees, and ask the probing questions necessary to fulfill their fiduciary duties. Employers may need to retain professional advisors to implement a strategy of compliance and procedural prudence to manage their plans.

Dave Kulchar, Executive Vice President and Director of Retirement Plan Services at Oswald Financial, Inc. explains that there are two phases in the implementation of these rules. He says, "Phase one requires service providers to disclose all costs to plan sponsors beginning on July 1st. Phase two requires plan sponsors to deliver this information to plan participants, effective August 1st."

The new requirements often are explained in a complex manner that are difficult for organizations to understand so we've simplified them to summarize 4 of the most critical action steps you need to take to comply with these new requirements.

1. Make sure you receive the necessary disclosures.

Employers must make sure that they have received all of the required disclosure information from their covered service providers (auditors, record keepers, custodians, actuaries, advisors etc.).  If the required information is not received by July 1, 2012, then the employer has an obligation to request the information in writing. Without the required information in hand, any fees paid to those service providers may be considered prohibited transactions under ERISA and employers can be held liable for civil penalties or excise taxes.

2. Evaluate and benchmark fees from your vendors.

The new rules of 2012 require covered service providers of ERISA-covered defined benefit and defined contribution plans to provide employers with the information necessary for them to evaluate whether fees paid to service providers are reasonable when compared to those paid by other similar plans and determine if any conflicts of interest may impact a service provider's performance under a service arrangement. Information that must be disclosed includes:

  • A description of all services to be provided to the plan
  • All compensation it expects to receive, including direct and indirect compensations
  • The manner in which compensation will be received by the service provider
  • A description of whether the services provided are fiduciary services or services under the Investment Advisors Act of 1940
  • Information about conflicts of interest

This information will be necessary to evaluate and benchmark their fees against other service providers in the market to determine whether they are reasonable or not, and to understand if the fees are in line with those paid by similar plans. Organizations will need to make sure that they aren't paying unreasonably high fees for their retirement plan's services and document their analysis and review.

Why is benchmarking necessary? As plan fiduciaries, employers must evaluate their providers regularly in terms of their cost and competence to avoid liability, even if they are satisfied with their provider and aren't considering a change. In addition, employers should be wary of simply choosing the least costly service providers and evaluate their competence and level of service to protect themselves from potential liability. 

3. Communicate fees to employees.

Effective August 1, 2012, employers need to communicate and report these disclosed fees to employees participating in the retirement plan. Under these rules, employers are also required to provide ongoing disclosure to plan participants on quarterly statements going forward. It is important to note that this communication is the responsibility of plan sponsors - not plan service providers.

These disclosures must include an explanation of fees and expenses charged or deducted from participants' accounts as well as general information about the plan's structure and operation. "In some cases, employers will need to combine all of the information disclosed by various service providers and vendors in order to communicate it to employees," Kulchar explains.

In terms of how fees should be communicated, Kulchar advises, "Employers must communicate disclosed fees on paper unless they meet the necessary qualifications to disclose them online, which in many situations may be difficult to meet. Also, there is no set format and communications can look different, but fees must be expressed in a flat dollar figure and percentage."

4. Anticipate and answer employee questions.

Employers need to anticipate and answer employee questions about the reports that they distribute on fees. They should be prepared for employees to request assistance in understanding the information being disclosed to them about the fees. Employers should also expect that employees will inquire about why they hired particular service providers and be in a position to justify and explain the fees and expenses that must be disclosed on a comprehensive basis for the first time. They may even consider providing a list of FAQs to employees when this information is disclosed.

"Currently, 72% of employees don't think they are paying anything for their retirement plan. As a result, employers should be prepared to receive and answer questions like 'Is this new?,' 'How long have we being paying this?,' 'Is this competitive?,' 'What's being charged?,' and 'Is this reasonable?,'" says Kulchar.

Although the 2012 legislation changes on retirement plans create new duties and responsibilities for employers, they provide an opportunity for employers to better understand the true costs of their plans and fees paid to providers and help employees better understand their plans as well.

Please note that by providing you with research information that may be contained in this article, ERC is not providing a qualified legal opinion. As such, research information that ERC provides to its members should not be relied upon or considered a substitute for legal advice. The information that we provide is for general employer use and not necessarily for individual application.

Additional Resources

ERC members save thousands on various retirement plan services offered through Preferred Partner, Oswald Financial. These services include waived fees on comprehensive retirement plan reviews and plan design consulting, discounts on Oswald's financial paperless 401(K).

Salaries in Healthcare Sector Reflect Demand

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Here in Northeast Ohio the prominence of our healthcare industry is often touted as one of the region’s greatest strengths. In terms of sheer volume, health care represents a significant proportion of the workforce- approximately 16% according to the 2012 Current Employment Statistics survey for non-agricultural jobs in the Cleveland-Elyria-mentor Metropolitan Statistic Area (MSA).

However, for those 155,400 individuals employed in healthcare/social assistance, being part of the workforce for this booming industry does not always translate into higher levels of compensation. In fact, using data from several ERC Compensation Surveys to perform an occupation specific analysis for 40 job categories placed two occupational subcategories within the healthcare industry, i.e. Patient/Client Services and Social Work, among the 10 lowest paying job categories in Northeast Ohio. Conversely, Clinical Healthcare Practitioners and Nurses came in as two of the 10 highest paying job categories in the region according to this 2012 data. 

Nursing, coming in as the fourth highest paid occupation in the analysis, is one of only a few positions that pay above the national median salary reported by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. As noted in a recent article from Crain’s Cleveland Business, registered nurses in particular can expect to remain in high demand across local healthcare systems. Clearly this demand for specialized, skilled talent is a key factor driving up rates of compensation within Nursing and among Clinical Healthcare Practitioners more generally.

At the opposite end of the spectrum the Patient/Client Services category includes a wide variety of jobs in healthcare, but with two important items in common, fairly low education and skill requirements and often highly repetitive job duties. A notable exception to this generalization that lower skills equate to lower pay, is in the field of Social Work. According to the 2011 ERC Non-Profit Benefits Survey, one way organizations often look to counteract this low market valuation of Health and Human Services positions such as Social Workers is to offer a unique array of other non-cash benefits that serve to enhance the total rewards package employees in these positions receive.

Additional Resources

ERC Non-Profit Compensation & Benefits Surveys
ERC, in partnership with United Way of Greater Cleveland, has created compensation and benefits surveys to help non-profits in Northeast Ohio gauge their compensation and benefits practices. Through this exclusive partnership, United Way Agencies that participate in these surveys will receive the survey results for no cost. Participate in our Compensation and Benefit Surveys by clicking here.

*The average median base salary figure for each occupation was calculated using data excerpts from the following surveys conducted by ERC: 2012 ERC Salary Survey, 2012 ERC Wage Survey and 2011 ERC Non-Profit Compensation Survey. Please note that the salary figure reported for each occupational category is an average of median salaries across applicable job titles from entry level up through management level positions.